A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology by Gwendolyn Leick

By Gwendolyn Leick

The Dictionary of historical close to jap Mythology covers resources from Mesopotamia, Syro-Palestine and Anatolia, from round 2800 to three hundred BC. It comprises entries on gods and goddesses, giving proof in their worship in temples, describing their 'character', as documented via the texts, and defining their roles in the physique of mythological narratives; synoptic entries on myths, giving where of beginning of major texts and a quick background in their transmission throughout the a long time; and entries explaining using expert terminology, for things like different types of Sumerian texts or sorts of mythological figures.

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Dumuzi started from the Elamite mountains, proceeded to Lagash and via Apisala to Enlil in Nippur. After a stop-over in Umma, he went on to Ur and presumably Eridu until he reached the temple of Geštinanna in Zabalam (Sauren). Falkenstein 1954, 41–65; Hartner 1965, 1–16; Sauren 1969, 230f; Alster 1972, 14; Jacobsen, in Frankfort et al. 1977, 198–9; Alster, in Hecker, Sommerfeld 1986, 1–13 Dumuziabzu—Sumerian goddess The name means ‘true child of the Apsu’. Gudea, the famous ruler of Lagash during the Neo-Sumerian period, called her the Lady of Kinirsha, a district of his territory.

They are also mentioned in connection with the Gulšeš goddesses. According to some texts they created man (Siegelová) and they sit by rivers, wells, or by the seashore. They decide the fates on every human being and are present at birth. Dingir-Mah in the singular stands for the mother-goddess Hannahanna. zi, means literally ‘rightful son’; Jacobsen prefers ‘the Quickener of the Young [in the Mother’s Womb]’. In Hebrew and Aramaic: TAMMUZ Dumuzi first appears under this name in economic texts from Šuruppak (Old Sumerian period).

This may account for his subordinate role in the Baal-Myths which reflect an agriculture based on rainfall. In the absence of Baal he is unable to fill his throne (in Baal and Mot, I, 46f) and in Baal and Yam he is told by Šapaš that he cannot have a palace like the other gods because he is not married or betrothed. There is no evidence of a cult of Aštar in Ugarit but a Greek text of the 5th C AD mentions Aštar in connection with child-sacrifice among the Bedouin tribes in Sinai. Caquot 1958, 46–60; Gray 1949, 46–60; Röllig, WdM 1965, 249–50 15 AŠTART/ASTARTE Aštart/Astarte—Ugar.

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