By Benjamin Keen, Keith Haynes
This best-selling textual content for introductory Latin American historical past classes, A historical past of Latin the USA, encompasses political and diplomatic conception, type constitution and financial association, tradition and faith, and the surroundings. The integrating framework is the dependency concept, the most well-liked interpretation of Latin American background, which stresses the commercial dating of Latin American international locations to wealthier international locations, quite the United States.Spanning pre-historic instances to the current, A historical past of Latin the USA makes use of either a chronological and a nation-by-nation procedure, and contains the latest old research and the main up to date examine. this can be the main streamlined and cohesive version but, with sizeable additions to pedagogy and bankruptcy content material. improved insurance of social and cultural historical past contains girls, indigenous cultures, and Afro-Latino peoples.
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Additional resources for A History of Latin America, Volume 1: Ancient America to 1910
Assigning the origin of all their arts and crafts to the Toltec period, the Aztecs applied the name Toltec to the true or master painter, singer, potter, or sculptor. Advances in regional division of labor and the growth of the market for luxury goods also led to the emergence of a merchant class, which was organized in a very powerful guild. The wealth of this class and its important military and diplomatic services to the Aztec state made the merchants a third force in Aztec society, ranking only after the warrior nobility and the priesthood.
Slavery was the punishment for a variety of offenses, including failure to pay debts, and some people voluntarily became slaves in exchange for food. Slave owners frequently brought their chattels to the great market at Azcapotzalco for sale to rich merchants or nobles for personal service or as sacriﬁcial offerings to the gods. The Aztec political system was a mixture of royal despotism and theocracy. Political power was concentrated in a ruling class of priests and nobles, over which presided an absolute ruler.
The causes of this crisis are obscure: tremendous droughts may have caused crop failure and famines, perhaps aggravated by Toltec neglect of agriculture in favor of collection of tribute from conquered peoples. A series of revolutions reﬂected the Toltec economic and social difﬁculties. The last Toltec king, Huemac, apparently committed suicide about 1174, and the Toltec state disappeared with him. In the following year, a general dispersion or exodus of THE AZTECS OF MEXICO the Toltecs took place.