A Tissue Regeneration Approach to Bone and Cartilage Repair by Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen

By Hala Zreiqat, Colin R. Dunstan, Vicki Rosen

Reviewing exhaustively the present cutting-edge of tissue engineering suggestions for regenerating bones and joints by utilizing biomaterials, progress elements and stem cells, in addition to an research of the interactions among biomaterials, bone cells, development components and additional stem cells and the way jointly skeletal tissues will be optimised, this publication serves to spotlight the significance of biomaterials composition, floor topography, architectural and mechanical homes in delivering aid for tissue regeneration.

Maximizing reader insights into the significance of the interaction of those attributes with bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes), this booklet additionally presents an in depth reference as to how key signalling pathways are activated. The contribution of development components to force tissue regeneration and stem telephone recruitment is mentioned in addition to a assessment the aptitude and demanding situations of grownup or embryonic mesenchymal stem cells to additional increase the formation of latest bone and cartilage tissues.

This ebook serves to illustrate the interconnectedness of biomaterials, bone/cartilage cells, development components and stem cells in identifying the regenerative method and hence the medical outcome.

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1016/S0140-6736(13)60856-9 Tsuji K, Bandyopadhyay A, Harfe BD, Cox K, Kakar S, Gerstenfeld L, Einhorn T, Tabin CJ, Rosen V (2006) BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture healing. Nat Genet 38(12):1424–1429 Epub 2006 Nov 12 Tsuji K, Cox K, Bandyopadhyay A, Harfe BD, Tabin CJ, Rosen V (2008) J Bone Joint Surg Am 90(Suppl 1):14–18. 01109 Tumialan LM, Pan J, Rodts GE, Mummaneni PV (2008) The safety and efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with polyetheretherketone spacer and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: a review of 200 patients.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 64(12):1277–1291. 014 Loeser RF, Gandhi U, Long DL, Yin W, Chubinskaya S (2014) Aging and oxidative stress reduce the response of human articular chondrocytes to insulin-like growth factor-1 and osteogenic protein-1. Arthritis Rheumatol. 38641 Loeser RF, Pacione CA, Chubinskaya S (2003) The combination of insulin-like growth factor 1 and osteogenic protein 1 promotes increased survival of and matrix synthesis by normal and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum 48(8):2188–2196.

Verborgt et al. (2002) showed that apoptosing osteocytes close to the site of microdamage express the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, while the cell-survival protein Bcl-2 is expressed by adjacent osteocytes further from the damaged zone. The authors proposed that these mechanisms serve to confine osteocyte apoptosis to sites of microdamage and provide spatial guidance for the resorption processes that occur after microdamage in bone. This provides a potential mechanism for what Parfitt described as the ‘Area Code’, by which preosteoclasts find their way out of the circulation to precisely where they are needed in the skeleton (Parfitt 1998).

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