By Stephen H. Hall
A synergistic method of sign integrity for high-speed electronic layout
This publication is designed to supply modern readers with an realizing of the rising high-speed sign integrity matters which are developing roadblocks in electronic layout. Written via the main specialists at the topic, it leverages thoughts and strategies from non-related fields reminiscent of utilized physics and microwave engineering and applies them to high-speed electronic design—creating the optimum mixture among concept and functional purposes.
Following an advent to the significance of sign integrity, bankruptcy assurance contains:
- Electromagnetic basics for sign integrity
Transmission line basics
Non-ideal conductor versions, together with floor roughness and frequency-dependent inductance
Frequency-dependent homes of dielectrics
Mathematical standards of actual channels
S-parameters for electronic engineers
Non-ideal go back paths and through resonance
I/O circuits and types
Modeling and budgeting of timing jitter and noise
method research utilizing reaction floor modeling
each one bankruptcy comprises many figures and diverse examples to aid readers relate the recommendations to daily layout and concludes with difficulties for readers to check their figuring out of the fabric. complicated sign Integrity for High-Speed electronic Designs is acceptable as a textbook for graduate-level classes on sign integrity, for courses taught in for pro engineers, and as a reference for the high-speed electronic dressmaker.
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Additional info for Advanced signal integrity for high-speed digital designs
Subsequently, when l1 is moved into the proximity of l0 , the force induced between the two electromagnets is caused by the charge (Q) of l1 moving in the magnetic field of l0 and is described by the Lorenz force law: Fm = Q(ν × B) (2-78a) A charge moving in the presence of both an electric and a magnetic field produces a force calculated as Fm = Q(E + ν × B) (2-78b) The implications of (2-78) are that the force is perpendicular to both the velocity ν of the charge q and the magnetic field B. The magnitude of the force is F = qvB sin θ , where θ is the angle between the velocity vector and the magnetic field.
It is useful to express (2-70) in terms of the electric field. To do this, Gauss’s law is used to express the charge density in terms of the electric field: ∇ · D = ∇ · ε E = ρ → We = 1 2 V (∇ · εE) (r) dV (2-71) This equation can be simplified using the flowing vector identity (Appendix A): ∇ · ψ a = a · ∇ψ + ψ(∇ · a) → ψ(∇ · a) = ∇ · ψ a − a · ∇ψ 39 ELECTROSTATICS The identity can be rewritten in terms of the electrostatic vector potential, substituting ψ = and a = εE: We = ε 2 (∇ · E − E · ∇ ) dV V Since E = −∇ , the equation can be simplified further: We = ε 2 (∇ · E + E · E) dV (2-72) V The divergence theorem of vector calculus states (Appendix A) that F · ds (∇ · F ) dV = V S allowing further simplification of (2-72): We = ε 2 E · n ds + S ε 2 E · E dV (2-73) V where n is a unit vector normal to the surface.
This calculates the total number of vectors ( J ) passing though the cross-sectional surface S of the wire, which is flux. Therefore, the flux of the current density function is the current flowing through area S and is calculated as ψi = i = J · ds A (2-20) S 18 ELECTROMAGNETIC FUNDAMENTALS FOR SIGNAL INTEGRITY az ds Current Density Vector J l = 1 mA 5mm Current Flux Figure 2-6 Current flux through a wire. Example 2-1 If a current of 1 mA is measured flowing through a wire with a radius of 5 mm, calculate the current density.