An Introduction to Chemical Metallurgy by R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

By R. H. Parker and D. W. Hopkins (Auth.)

Contents: advent to Thermodynamics Entropy, unfastened power and Chemical Equilibrium suggestions response Kinetics Electrochemistry Interfacial Phenomena Extraction and Refining of Metals Corrosion and Electrodeposition

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In the extraction of zinc, the metal can be produced as a vapour, which has to be condensed before it is cast as a liquid into moulds, and these values for the heat changes involved in condensation and solidification are important. (Latent heats of fusion and evaporation are often quoted in calories per gram, rather than kilocalories per mole, and care should be taken to note the units of figures quoted in tables of reference. ) When titanium transforms in the solid state from a (closepacked hexagonal) to ß (body-centred cubic) at 880°C, the heat of transformation Lt is 3-4 kJ/mol.

This approach was the basis of the thermodynamic scale of temperature proposed by Lord Kelvin, where the absolute zero of temperature is that value of T2 which would give an efficiency of 1. The Kelvin scale and the Gas scale are the same, provided that the gas is an ideal gas. The absolute zero of temperature is taken as —273 16°C (degrees Celsius) and absolute temperatures are often referred to as °K (degrees Kelvin). 5) for any reversible cycle, which can be considered as being made up of a large number of Carnot cycles.

INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS 21 Heat of Formation of a Compound: the change in enthalpy when 1 mole of the compound is formed from its constituent elements in their stable forms at 25°C and 1 atm pressure. For example, the heat of formation of lead sulphide, Pbs + iS 2s = PbSs, Δ//298 = |—941 kJ; the subscript 298 refers to the temperature of the measurement, 298°K. Since the absolute value of the heat content of a substance is not known, it has become the practice in thermochemistry to consider the heat content of elements in their standard states—at equilibrium at 25°C and 1 atm pressure —to be zero.

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