Ancient and Medieval Concepts of Friendship by Suzanne Stern-Gillet, SJ, Gary M. Gurtler

By Suzanne Stern-Gillet, SJ, Gary M. Gurtler

Charts the phases of the background of friendship as a philosophical suggestion within the Western international.

targeting Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics and Epicureans, and early Christian and Medieval resources, Ancient and Medieval ideas of Friendship brings jointly tests of other philosophical debts of friendship. This quantity sketches the evolution of the idea from historic beliefs of friendship using strictly to relationships among males of excessive social place to Christian innovations that deal with friendship as appropriate to all yet are involved mainly with the soul’s relation to God—and that ascribe a secondary prestige to human relationships. The e-book concludes with essays reading how this complicated historical past used to be acquired in the course of the Enlightenment, having a look particularly to Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Hölderlin

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The likeness or equality must be a likeness or equality in excellence. ] is to be taken both with ὅμοιον and ἴσον” has no bearing on the question whether likeness and equality should be identified. 50. See Diogenes Laertius, Vita 8, 10 and Aristotle, NE 1157b36 and EE 1240b2. 51. See, for example, Leg. 6, 759b–c on the elections of priests, for which the two forms of equality are used to produce friendship between the citizens. 52. See El Murr 2012. 53. See El Murr 2012, 588–93. 54. Throughout the last section of this paper, I shall refer to the members of the ideal city’s intermediate class as “guards,” not “guardians,” as is usually preferred.

837c6–7: to sōphron). Here too the life of the true lovers depicted by Socrates’ second speech is a perfect illustration of what the Athenian describes as a mutual and everlasting affection grounded on friendship from resemblance. This being said, on what grounds can we claim that the principle of “like loves like” holds for the kind of philia bonding the philosophical pair of the Phaedrus? Even though there is no direct formulation of that principle to be found in the specific context of Socrates’ second speech in the Phaedrus, we should not overlook his observation that the two lovers are “of one mind” (Phdr.

6, 757a1). ” As for democracy, this form of constitution grants equal honors to the good and the bad, insofar as it gives equal access to public office to people who deserve it and to people who do not. For this very reason friendship cannot occur either. Instead of promoting friendship and social harmony, pure monarchy and pure democracy lead to stasis and discord (cf. 757a4–5). Pure monarchy does so because it destroys all forms of equality between the ruled (who are therefore comparable to slaves), pure democracy, because it is absurdly egalitarian.

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