Andean journeys: migration, ethnogenesis, and the state in by Karen Vieira Powers

By Karen Vieira Powers

This account of the local peoples of Ecuador within the 16th and 17th century indicates how they not just resisted, tailored, and survived Spanish colonization yet reinvented themselves as a tradition. provided are either a revisionist remedy of the demographic background of Amerindian Ecuador and a clearer realizing of North Andean ethnogenesis. Powers's examine of Andean inhabitants activities within the Audiencia of Quito from 1535 to 1700 exhibits that local migrations account for a inhabitants bring up in Quito in the course of a time while contiguous components skilled a speedy decline in Indian inhabitants. past reconstructing the stream of the local peoples, Powers additionally explores how migration replaced the lives of Indians and Spaniards. The migratory move from local groups to Spanish towns, fabric generators, and haciendas ended in a consistently mutating colonial international. For elite Spaniards, the migrations intended the close to cave in of the tribute and compelled hard work approach, whereas nonelite Spaniards have been capable of benefit from the choice hard work provided through the migrant Indians, leading to social mobility and the formation of latest sessions. For Indians, the migrations have been in the beginning a survival technique yet resulted in the decline of the conventional chiefdom. A key discovering of the research is that Ecuadorean Indians completed cultural survival through reconstructing Andean lifeways contained in the websites to which they migrated.

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Cuenca, Quito (city), and Santo Domingo de Chunchi all related population increases in 1582. 25 Table 3: Indigenous Population Increase in Chillos Valley,1559-1591Llajta Visita of 1559Census of 1591PercentagePersonsTotal PopulationChangePuembo282456+62Pingolquí383287-25El Ynga177498+181Urin Chillo1,1561,551+34(Zangolquí)Anan Chillo 1,0881,194+10(Amaguaña)Uyumbicho4811,184+146Total:3,5675,180+45Sources: AGI, Justicia 683, as quoted in Salomon, Native Lords, pp. ," 1591. 27 In thirty-two years, the population of these six sierran communities made an impressive leap, at a time when most of the indigenous populations of Page 22 Spanish America were still declining.

Loja, Cuenca, and Zamora, all mining regions, experienced the most precipitous decline of the entire audiencia between 1570 and 1591 (table 1). Mining also aggravated the demographic drain on the region's core, since labor gangs were sent to the goldfields from encomiendas as far north as Otavalo (250 miles away). 16 Without a doubt, however, the single most disruptive event of the sixteenth century was the introduction of Old World diseases. 18 In addition to high mortality, the societal destructuration and psychological disorientation that accompanied these disease episodes must also be considered important catalysts for subsequent population movements.

Ayllu Names by Town, 1645-1698 182 Page xi Acknowledgments This book is the result of an odyssey that began as a childhood passion for the Spanish language in Yonkers, New York, and ended in the archives of the far reaches of the Ecuadorean highlands. Along the way, I have had the privilege to meet many special people whose advice, encouragement, and example have contributed immeasurably to this project's realization. First, I would like to thank the directors and general staffs of the archives of Ecuador and Spain.

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