By J. Karakoç Bakis, Jülide Karakoç
Via a distinct selection of essays drawn from wealthy case stories, Authoritarianism within the center East presents very important insights into the continued instabilities of the center East, and the authoritarianism and democratisation tactics that experience resulted in dramatic socio-political variations.
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Extra info for Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Before and After the Arab Uprisings
In his book The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Samuel Huntington (1991a) argued that the democratization process in the contemporary world has been occurring in three waves beginning in the early 19th century and continuing into the present day. The first wave of democratization began in the 1820s with the widening of suffrage to a large portion of the male population in the United States and continued for almost a century until 1926, bringing into being some 29 democracies.
Hinnebusch (2006) suggested that the failure of contemporary high-income, oil-rich states in the Middle East to democratize also shows the shortcomings of the modernization theory. In his view, “Modernization thresholds have not been exceeded in so far as much of this income derives from external rent that increases (and decreases) without much of the societal mobilization or complexity which Modernization Theory believes make authoritarian governance unviable” (Hinnebusch, 2006, pp. 374–375). Then how can the democracy deficit of the Middle East be explained when one particularly considers the high-income, oil-rich countries?
137–156. , and M. Ottaway (2000) Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. A. Akerlof and L. Blaydes (2012) “Democratic Change in the Arab World, Past and Present[with Comments and Discussion],” Brooking Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, pp. 363–414. , and S. Levitsky (1997) “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research,” World Politics, 49 (3), pp. 430–451. A. (1971) Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition.