By Bernhard Sonnleitner
With contributions through a variety of specialists
Read or Download Advances in Biochemical Engineering - Biotechnology. - Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring PDF
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Additional resources for Advances in Biochemical Engineering - Biotechnology. - Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring
Some are not precise which is either caused by the chemical instability of the extracts and/or the low relaxation times of the intracellular compounds in comparison with the required sample preparation time. One must also bear in mind that the macromolecular composition of cells may change during a cultivation  and even organelles underlie certain dynamics . Physiological state based on the cellular level is extensively treated by Schuster in this volume. g. g. . Biomass quantification by image analysis is treated extensively by Pons and Vivier in this volume.
Potentiometric transducers measure the potential between the sensing element and a reference element. Thus, in contrast to amperometric transducers, practically no mass transport occurs; the response depends on the development of the thermodynamic equilibrium. pH changes often correlate with the measured substance because many enzymatic reactions consume or produce protons. Conductometric transducers consist of two pairs of identical electrodes, one of which contains an immobilized enzyme. As the enzyme-catalyzed reaction causes concentration changes in the electrolyte the conductivity alters and can be detected.
This system was applied for on-line monitoring of an Escherichia coli culture. However, the dielectric properties of cells such as distinct deviations in the capacity values have been shown to depend on the growth stage of a culture . 3 Filtration Properties Lenz et al.  and Reuss et al.  have further developed an automatic filtration device [300, 435] that allows the estimation of the biomass concentration in a relatively large sample (approx. 100 ml) according to its filtration properties.