By Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli
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Extra info for Biosensors for Security and Bioterrorism Applications
The most toxic, ricin is a protein produced by the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis. The whole plant is poisonous, with ricin reaching the highest levels in seeds. Once in the target cell, a single ricin molecule inactivates around 1500 ribosomes per minute, ultimately resulting in cell death. A fatal ingested dose for human is about 1 μg/kg [8, 9, 15] but the levels of toxicity vary depending on the route of ricin exposure. The mean lethal dose (LD50) in mice is approximately 1000–fold lower by injection or inhalation than by oral administration [9, 14].
Use of preformed membranes is certainly an alternative, perhaps easier, approach, though a less elegant solution to sample separation for microfluidics, and the smaller the channel diameter, the more difﬁcult to achieve. However, in one report a simple commercial microporous membrane was sandwiched between two micro flow chambers and used to discriminate low molecular weight peptides from a protein containing biological mixture for later SERS analysis . For blood plasma separation, a microporous polysulphone membrane was used where vertical deployment of the membrane avoided cell sedimentation onto the membrane so avoiding membrane blockage .
5 A cross-channel densitometry analysis showing the location of the intense colour of permanganate solution as permanganate from such a solution diffuses laterally across the direction of flow into an aqueous receiving stream. The image represents a stop-flow experiment with loss of the sharp liquid-liquid interface as the permanganate diffuses across. Quantitative proﬁling was achieved by grey scale imaging. The horizontal axes is in mm and the key refers to distance along the flow channel colloid, and so the sensor should not be too far down the channel, whilst positioning too near the flow entry means it is within the Languor distance.