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Additional resources for Calvinism and the Capitalist Spirit: Max Weber’s Protestant Ethic
Rational technology. 3 This constitutes a composite differentia specifica of modern capitalism as against other forms of capitalism with which the former shares, in particular, the use of money and the orientation to profit. For indeed Weber held the view (pronounced 'nonsense' by Marx) that one may legitimately and enlighteningly think of capitalism as having existed in many historical periods and many parts of the world, and saw modern capitalism (as characterised above) as, conceptually speaking, just one variant of that larger phenomenon.
2. Organisational and material means of production fully appropriated by capital owners. 3. Rational capital accounting aimed at long-run, ever-renewed profitability. 4. Orientation to opportunities ( Chancen) open on the market. 5. Rational organisation of labour and of work discipline. 6. Rational technology. 3 This constitutes a composite differentia specifica of modern capitalism as against other forms of capitalism with which the former shares, in particular, the use of money and the orientation to profit.
Yet, however different, these are but two different modalities of the same constraint to adapt oneself to the system's logic, embodied in competition. By allocating both its rewards and its penalties according to that logic, the system automatically engenders motivations and modes of conduct congruent with itself; it selects individuals capable of prospering or surviving in it, and marginalises or eliminates those not so capable. By the very logic of its operation, then, modern capitalism generates in actors the subjective orientations it thrives on, and to that extent constitutes indeed a selfsustaining, going concern (45; 54-5).